DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM

UNIT I
Characterization of Distributed Systems: Introduction, Examples of distributed Systems, Resource Sharing and the Web Challenges. Architectural models, Fundamental Models. Theoretical Foundation for Distributed System: Limitation of Distributed system, absence of global clock, shared memory, Logical clocks ,Lamport’s & vectors logical clocks. Concepts in Message Passing Systems: causal order, total order, total causal order, Techniques for Message Ordering, Causal ordering of messages, global state, termination detection.

UNIT II
Distributed Mutual Exclusion: Classification of distributed mutual exclusion, requirement of mutual exclusion theorem, Token based and non token based algorithms, performance metric for distributed mutual exclusion algorithms. Distributed Deadlock Detection: system model, resource Vs communication deadlocks, deadlock prevention, avoidance, detection & resolution, centralized dead lock detection, distributed dead lock detection, path pushing algorithms, edge chasing algorithms.

UNIT III
Agreement Protocols: Introduction, System models, classification of Agreement Problem, Byzantine agreement problem, Consensus problem, Interactive consistency Problem, Solution to Byzantine Agreement problem, Application of Agreement problem, Atomic Commit in Distributed Database system. Distributed Resource Management: Issues in distributed File Systems, Mechanism for building distributed file systems, Design issues in Distributed Shared Memory, Algorithm for Implementation of Distributed Shared Memory.
UNIT IV
Failure Recovery in Distributed Systems: Concepts in Backward and Forward recovery, Recovery in Concurrent systems, Obtaining consistent Checkpoints, Recovery in Distributed Database Systems. Fault Tolerance: Issues in Fault Tolerance, Commit Protocols, Voting protocols, Dynamic voting protocols

UNIT V
Transactions and Concurrency Control: Transactions, Nested transactions, Locks, Optimistic Concurrency control, Timestamp ordering, Comparison of methods for concurrency control. Distributed Transactions: Flat and nested distributed transactions, Atomic Commit protocols, Concurrency control in distributed transactions, Distributed deadlocks, Transaction recovery. Replication: System model and group communication, Fault – tolerant services, highly available services, Transactions with replicated data.

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