Introduction to Compiler: Phases and passes, Bootstrapping, Finite state machines and regular expressions and their applications to lexical analysis, Optimization of DFA-Based Pattern Matchers implementation of lexical analyzers, lexical-analyzer generator, LEX compiler, Formal grammars and their application to syntax analysis, BNF notation, ambiguity, YACC. The syntactic specification of programming languages: Context free grammars, derivation and parse trees, capabilities of CFG.
Basic Parsing Techniques: Parsers, Shift reduce parsing, operator precedence parsing, top down parsing, predictive parsers Automatic Construction of efficient Parsers: LR parsers, the canonical Collection of LR(0) items, constructing SLR parsing tables, constructing Canonical LR parsing tables, Constructing LALR parsing tables, using ambiguous grammars, an automatic parser generator, implementation of LR parsing tables.
Syntax-directed Translation: Syntax-directed Translation schemes, Implementation of Syntax-directed Translators, Intermediate code, postfix notation, Parse trees & syntax trees, three address code, quadruple & triples, translation of assignment statements, Boolean expressions, statements that alter the flow of control, postfix translation, translation with a top down parser. More about translation: Array references in arithmetic expressions, procedures call, declarations and case statements.
Symbol Tables: Data structure for symbols tables, representing scope information. Run-Time Administration: Implementation of simple stack allocation scheme, storage allocation in block structured language. Error Detection & Recovery: Lexical Phase errors, syntactic phase errors semantic errors.
Code Generation: Design Issues, the Target Language. Addresses in the Target Code, Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs, Optimization of Basic Blocks, Code Generator. Code optimization: Machine-Independent Optimizations, Loop optimization, DAG representation of basic blocks, value numbers and algebraic laws, Global Data-Flow analysis.