Programming for Problem Solving
By Varun Pundir
Assistant Professor AKTU,Lucknow
Introduction to Programming
Introduction to components of a computer system: Memory, processor, I/O Devices, storage, operating system, Concept of assembler, compiler, interpreter, loader and linker. Idea of Algorithm: Representation of Algorithm, Flowchart, Pseudo code with examples, From algorithms to programs, source code.
Programming Basics: Structure of C program, writing and executing the first C program, Syntax and logical errors in compilation, object and executable code. Components of C language. Standard I/O in C, Fundamental data types, Variables and memory locations, Storage classes.
Arithmetic expressions & Conditional Branching
Arithmetic expressions and precedence:Operators and expression using numeric and relational operators, mixed operands, type conversion, logical operators, bit operations, assignment operator, operator precedence and associativity.
Conditional Branching: Applying if and switch statements, nesting if and else, use of break and default with switch.
Loops & Functions
Iteration and loops: use of while, do while and for loops, multiple loop variables, use of break and continue statements. Functions: Introduction, types of functions, functions with array, passing parameters to functions, call by value, call by reference, recursive functions.
Arrays & Basic Algorithms
Arrays: Array notation and representation, manipulating array elements, using multi dimensional arrays. Character arrays and strings, Structure, union, enumerated data types, Array of structures, Passing arrays to functions.
Basic Algorithms: Searching &Basic Sorting Algorithms (Bubble, Insertion and Selection), Finding roots of equations, Notion of order of complexity.
Pointer& File Handling
Pointers:Introduction, declaration, applications, Introduction to dynamic memory allocation (malloc, calloc, realloc, free), Use of pointers in self-referential structures, notion of linked list (no implementation)
File handling:File I/O functions, Standard C preprocessors, defining and calling macros, command-line arguments.
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